台灣商標程序之註冊商標程序助理陳芃

Trademark registration procedure in Taiwan

Trademark application assistant Chen Peng

我國現行商標法係採取註冊主義及先申請主義。我國商標法第二條明定,欲取得商標權、證明標章權、團體標章權或團體商標權者,應依本法申請註冊。

Taiwan employs a first-to-register system for trademark protection. Article 2 of the Trademark Law in Taiwan expressly indicates that “Any person who wishes to obtain the rights of trademark, certificate mark, collective membership mark, or collective trademark shall apply for registration therefore in accordance with this Act.”

一、申請人

1. Applicant

申請人應具備之主觀要件為確具使用意思,客觀要件則須為表彰自己營業之商品者。其中所謂之營業,依商標法施行細則第五條之規定事項認定之,包括公司登記、商業登記、營利事業登記等項目,或具體營業計劃、股東會決議及其他相關事證。

Applicant should be subjective to ensure the purpose of application but to be objective when representing its sales of commodities. For its business operation, it is necessary to comply with Rule 5 of the Enforcement Rules of Trademark Act, including its company registration, business registration, operation business, or specific business plans, shareholder meetings or any other related matters.

是以,只要具備上述要件者,不論其為自然人、法人或外國人,皆具申請人之資格。

Therefore, as long as the person fulfilled its requirements listed above, any natural persons, legal person or foreigners would be qualified to apply.

二、商標代理人

2. Trademark Attorney

有關申請商標註冊及其相關事務,除由本人自行處理外亦得委由代理人為之。所謂商標代理人,指在國內有住所之自然人,為當事人利益,基於法規規定,代理當事人項商標專責機關請求為商標許可、認可或其他授益行為之公法上意思表示者而言。

Anything in relation to trademark registration or all the other legal matters, unless it is handled by person itself, you can appoint an agent to do so. Trademark Attorney is defined as a natural person that has its means of country residence, to act for the interest of the parties, to seek its trademark license, approval, or other acts of authorization according to the Public Law for its trademark application.

三、應備之文件及其記載

3. Required documents and description

申請商標註冊,應由申請人備具申請書,載名商標、指定使用之商品或服務及其類別,向商標專責機關申請之。有關商品及服務之分類,為決定商標權範圍之重要依據應具明確記載。又申請人得以一商標註冊申請案,指定使用於二個以上類別之商品或服務。

In order to register its trademark, the applicant should get all the documentations ready including its application, name of the trademark, appointed use of goods and services and its classification to its Intellectual Property Office for registration. According to its classification of goods and services, such application should be clearly listed in order to determine its scope of trademark right. On the other hand, trademark applicant may appoint two or more categories of goods or services when lodging its trademark application.

而依商標法規定,申請人應將商標包含之說明性或不具識別性事項聲明不專用,始能取得商標註冊。其規範目的,主要在防止商標權利範圍之爭議,在造成無爭議的情形下,商標專責機關將透過依法職權聲明不專用方式,以簡化審查程序提升效益。

According to its Trademark Act regulation, applicant shall include its trademark description or its non-distinguishable characteristics into its trademark application. The purpose for such standard is to prevent any disputes arises for the scope of trademark rights. In order to prevent such situation, its Trademark Authorities would, according to its powers according to the law, to simplify its review process to improve its productivities.

四、申請事項之變更

4. Amendments to application

申請人之名稱、地址、代理人或其他註冊申請事項變更者,應向商標專責機關申請變更。又並非所有事項均得變更,商標圖樣及其指定使用之商品或服務,申請後即不得變更。

Changes to the name or address of the applicant, the trademark agent, or any other particulars in an application for registration shall be made by filing a request therefor with the Registrar Office.

但指定使用商品或服務之減縮,或非就商標圖樣為實質變更者,不在此限。因其係縮小申請註冊之範圍,不影響申請日且對審查效率亦無減損,故不在禁止變更之列。(商標法第23、24條)。

Unless such amendment is a restriction of designated goods or services or an amendment to the reproduction of a trademark which does not substantially change such trademark. By narrowing the scope of application would not derogate its efficiency on examination nor to influence its calculation period. Such amendment would not be restricted. (Article 23 and 24 of Trademark Act)

五、先申請主義

5. First-to-register system

商標權利之取得應依申請時間之先後加以審查,故於同一或類似商品,以相同或近似的商標提出申請者,應由先提出申請者取得商標權。

(商標法第30條第10款)

To obtain its trademark rights, it should be reviewed in accordance with the application period, if such trademark is found to be the same or similar to the other trademark, the first-to-register person would grant its trademark right.

(Trademark Act Article 30 (10))

六、主管機關

6. Authorities

本法之主管機關為經濟部。商標業務,由經濟部指定專責機關辦理。(商標法第3條)

The Competent Authority of this Act is the Ministry of Economic Affairs (hereinafter as the MOEA). Trademark affairs shall be administered under a registrar office appointed by the MOEA. (Trademark Act Article 3).

七、期日及期間

7. Dates and Time

有關期間之計算,商標法並無明文規定,但民法第120條,有始日不計算在內之規定,解釋上應採同一解釋,至於商標法有關商標權10年之期間,則應自註冊公告當日起。

According to its period calculation, there is no express provision listed in the Trademark Law. However according to the Civil Code Section 120, the beginning date shall not be included into such calculation, such interpretation shall be adopted to have its same effect here. The proprietor of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right of the trademark for a period of ten years from the date of publication of registration.

八、商標優先權

8. Trademark Priority

商標法第20條即規定,在與中華民國有相互承認優先權之國家或世界貿易組織會員,依法申請註冊之商標,其申請人於第一次申請日後六個月內,向中華民國就該申請同一之部分或全部商品或服務,以相同商標申請註冊者,得主張優先權。外國申請人為非世界貿易組織會員之國民且其所屬國家與中華民國無相互承認優先權者,如於互惠國或世界貿易組織會員領域內,設有住所或營業所者,得依前項規定主張優先權。

According to Article 20, an applicant who has duly filed an application for trademark registration in a country which has reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC, or filed such application with a member of the World Trade Organization, may claim a right of priority, for the purpose of registering the same trademark in the ROC for some or all the same goods or services, within six months from the day following the date of filing of the first such application.

An applicant of a foreign country which is not a member of the WHOT nor a country having reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC, may claim a right of priority pursuant to the preceding paragraph if he/she is domiciled or has a business establishment in the territory of a country which has reciprocal recognition of priority rights with the ROC or in the territory of a member of the WTO.

優先權制度是於一定期間內,保護商標申請人不受商標地域性限制之規定,其主要目的是為,避免商標申請人常因商標權屬地性之特性,造成申請人不易取得國際性保護之憾。

The purpose for such priority system is that during a certain period, in order to prevent its trademark applicant to regret not to receive its global protection due to its first-to-register system, the trademark applicant can receive its protection without its territorial limits.

九、送達及公報

9. Service and report

送達者,是指商標專責機關依一定程序,將文書或其他特定事項,通知特定當事人之行政行為。須經合法送達,始生一定法律效果。

Delivery person means a form of administrative action for its Trademark authorities to follow certain procedures to have its documentations and other specific matters delivered to the other parties. Once such documentation is delivered, such documentation is considered as valid in the eyes of law.

為避免消費者對產品或服務之來源產生混淆,商標專責機關應刊行公報,登載註冊商標及其相關事項,以供消費者參考,同時亦可避免他人誤用已經註冊之商標。

In order to prevent any confusion for its consumer products and services, the Trademark Authorities shall print and publish its recent approved registered trademark and all other related matters to public, in order to prevent misuse of its registered trademark by mistake.

參考文獻

Reference

曾陳明汝,商標法原理,2000年8月,曾陳明汝。        

Cheng-Ming-Ru Cheng, The Principles of Trademark Law, August 2000, Cheng-Ming-Ru Cheng.

汪渡村,商標法論,2011年2月二版,五南。

Du-Chun Wang, Principles of Trademark Law, February 2011, 2nd edition, Fifth South.

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